Day 1 :
National Chiayi University, Taiwan
Keynote: Retinoic Acid Protects Zebra fish Retinal Photoreceptor Cells from the toxicity of Paclobutrazol
Time : 10:30-11:30
Wen‐Der Wang has his expertise in biological toxicology and molecular pathology, and he applies h s expertise to investigate the toxic effects and the molecular mechanisms of environmental pollutant s (especially environmental hormones and pesticides). He also applied his research results to environmental education to correct people’s environmental attitude and behaviors.
Paclobutrazol (P BZ), a fungicide and plant growth retardant, shows toxicity to aquatic embryos, probably through rain‐wash. Here, we show the toxic effect of PBZ on eye development in zebra fish, as well as the role of the vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), controls proliferation an d differentiation of retinal photoreceptor cells, in PBZ toxicity. Embryos were expose d to PBZ with or without RA from 2 to 72 h post‐fertilization (hpf), and PBZ‐treat d embryos (2‐72 hpf) were exposed to RA for additional hours until 120 hpf. Eye size and histology were examined. Examination of the expression levels of gnat1 (rod photoreceptor marker), gnat2 (cone photo receptor marker), aldehyde dehydrogenases (encoding key enzymes for RA synthesis), and phospho‐histone H3 (an M‐phase marker) in the eyes of control and treated embryos were examined and the results indicated that PBZ exposure dramatically reduces photo receptor proliferation, thus resulting in a thinning of the photoreceptor cell layer and leading to a small eye. Co‐treatment of PBZ with RA, or post‐treatment of PBZ‐treated embryos with RA, partially rescues photoreceptor cells, revealed by expression levels of marker proteins and by retinal cell proliferation. PBZ has strong embryonic toxicity to retinal photoreceptors, probably via suppressing the production of RA, with effects including impaired retinal cell division.
North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, India
Keynote: Clinical profile of patients presenting to a tertiary hospital with mushroom poisoning in North east India –A retrospective study
Time : 12:00-13:00
Iadarilang Tiewsoh is a Physician Intensivist, did her intensive care medicine from Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. She has continued her field of medicine as Assistant Professor in PGIMER, Chandigarh for a while and joined the Central Medical Institute, North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Shillong, Meghalaya, from April, 2017. She has great passion in the field of critical care medicine which toxicology is a part of it. Having joined the present institute she has started to encounter the fatal cases of mushroom poisoning and has a goal of studying more about to poisoning to help create awareness to the affected areas.
Statement of the Problem: Mushroom poisoning has been encountered frequently in the Indian sub-continent and worldwide. It is known to be one of the cause of fulminant hepatitis for which the definitive treatment being liver transplant. In the case reports reported till date the patients of mushroom poisoning are being diagnosis by clinical presentations and history of mushroom intake, because the availability of the mycologist and toxicologists required for mushroom identification and diagnosis were not available in many places. Mushroom forms part of the diet in the ethnic tribes of our country and most of the case reports of mushroom poisoning till date are from north India and south India among the tribes of the areas with the intake of wild mushrooms unintentional. The type of syndrome presentation in patients with mushroom poisoning and awareness is being provided about the non-edible mushroom in this region. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical presentation of all the patients presenting to the hospital in the last 4 years with mushroom poisoning where a fair idea of the existing poisonous mushroom species can be made from the specified syndrome.
Methodology: The hospital records of all the patients with a diagnosis of mushroom poisoning were reviewed from January 2014 to May 2018 and all relevant information were recorded in a structured performa. A descriptive analysis of all collected variables was carried out.
Findings: Over 28 cases of mushroom poisoning presented to our hospital in the last 4 years, mainly in the raining season (March-May) and autumn season (August-October). All cases were from the tribal areas of the four neighboring 4 districts of the state. The wild mushrooms were self-picked from the forest. 15 patients had developed early symptoms (less than 6 hours) and were less fatal, however 13 patients developed the symptoms after 6 hours of consumption and were more seriously ill out of which 4 cases expired due to acute hepatic failure. The clinical syndrome presentation were acute gastroenteritis with liver failure in 8 cases (suspected Aminata poisonin), 13 cases of acute gastroenteritis (suspected mushroom species Chlorophyllum molybdites, Clitocybe nebularis, Omphalates illudens), one case of Acute renal failure (suspected Cortinarius violaceus species), one case showing Disulfiram like reaction (suspected Coprinus atramentarius, Clitocybe clavipes species), 5 cases of Cholinergic mushroom poisoning (suspected Citocybe dealbata, C. illudens, Inocybe fastigiata species). The mortality from mushroom poisoning resulted mainly due to fulminant hepatitis in 4 cases.
Conclusion: The mushroom poisoning in this part of the country is mainly due to consumption of wild poisonous mushrooms, with amanita species type being responsible for most of the fatalities. From the clinical syndrome presentation and on visiting the affected areas, the Aminata species seems to be common, a variety of the other poisonous mushroom are also present as evident from the clinical presentation. The Aminata biosporigera and Cortinarius violaceus species has been identified at the affected villages.
- Food Toxicology
Manisha Mehta has her expertise in weight, fat, muscle management and sports nutrition. Her keen interest in food and the way it affects life has driven her extensive studies in the subjects of food technology, packaging technology and nutrition along with food service management systems. The foundation of this presentation is based on the years of experience she has gained while studying as well as successful counseling of hundreds of clients with issues varying from weight management to lifestyle disorders and food intolerances in different settings including hospitals and health centers.
Around 39% of the adult world population is overweight and 13% are obese (WHO). One of the major reasons for this (As per Harvard researchers) is certain food toxins responsible for increasing crave-ability of junk food. Another study suggests the presence of certain chemical obesogens which disrupt the leptin and ghrelin (appetite hormones) also affect the size of adipocytes. Prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome is claimed to be varying between 6-10% in various studies including the major ones from National Institute of Health (NIN), Rotterdam and androgen excess society. Thyroid on the other hand is affecting 10% of the population (as per a study conducted in 8 major cities of India) The sedentary lifestyle, convenience foods and improper cooking practices though are to be blamed for the increasing prevalence of all lifestyle disorders but at the same time the increasing exposure to environmental toxins including microbiological, natural food toxins, polymer leaching and its residues including phthalates and bisphenols and the biological magnification of the pesticides across the food chain are all the more responsible for the hormonal imbalances caused by the chemicals mimicking the hormones in the natural biochemical processes hence causing the lifestyle disorders. The purpose of this presentation is to compile and highlight the most common toxins affecting the nutritional status of the masses, their common sources and mode of action. The presentation also puts light on the solution based approach (including the importance of an anti-inflammatory diet) and steps which can be taken to rectify the fundamentals which are going wrong.
- Environmental Toxicology
Location: Mercure Singapore On Stevens
National Chiayi University, Taiwan
Fu Chi Chuang is a Graduate student of Institute of Educational Administration and Policy at National Chiayi University. Her study focuses on the elementary school teachers’ in‐service training policy. She also pays close attention to the environmental hormones that risk human health.
As the industrial development, our environment has been contaminated by many artificial chemical, such as plastics, pesticides and so on. Many environmental pollutants that have been classified as environmental hormone (also named endocrine disruptors) and have received much attention over the last 20 years. Environmental protection is the most important issue all over the world and it is the responsibility for all the global citizens. Education is the ways to educate citizens to have correct knowledge and learn how to protect our environment. Elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education and environmental education is an important component for student to help them develop adequate environmental knowledge, attitudes and behavior. However, elementary teachers’ knowledge plays the critical role in such mission. Therefore, we use questionnaire to survey the environmental knowledge (case of environmental hormone) of elementary school teachers and also survey the motivation of environmental hormone regarding knowledge, learning behavior of them. We have collected 107 questionnaires and the results to indicate around 34% elementary school teachers who are not knowledgeable about environmental hormones and its potential risk for health and also indicate the less understanding of environmental hormones which will strengthen their learning motivation.
- Pharmacology and Pesticide poisoning
Marien Ngouabi University, Congo
Nadège Samlan Okémy is a Senior Lecturer (CAMES) at the Marien Ngouabi University. He is a Teacher of Animal Physiology at the Superior Normal School. Within the framework of research, she always had a passion and concern for the assumption of responsibility of population through, medicinal plants. The development, rationalization and revalorization of this ancestral culture mark its scientific motivation.
Medicinal plants are staging a comeback and herbal renaissance is happening all over the globe. The plant products today symbolize safety in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to human and environment. The present study deals with the in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity in aqueous leaf extracts and ointment of Ageratum conyzoides. The previous phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of Ageratum conyzoides has indicated the presence of several active phytochemicals such as flavonoids, saponin, tannins, steroids and alkaloids which could support the anti-inflammatory effect. The toxicology and pharmacology studies proved that, aqueous extract and ointment of this medicinal plant aren’t toxic, no irritation on the skin and rat’s eye. In effect, they showed a significant reduction (p<0.001 at 100 and 200 mg by wistar rat weight with aqueous extract, then 4 and 8 g ointment doses) the volume edema arthritic induced by Freud Adjuvant, under the right posterior paw of wistar rats. Furthermore this extracts plant used without dose dependently, in contrary ointment, which appears more effective with 4 g. Also extract aqueous and ointment of Ageratum conyzoides blocked the dolor product by inflammation arthritic and shows a significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, our studies support the isolation and the use of active constituents from aqueous leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides in treating inflammations and associated rheumatism. The proposed formulation with this aqueous extract is also active in acute inflammation. Finally, these results suggest the possibility of the use this preparation the treatment of acute or chronic inflammatory pathology by the Congolese population.
Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, India
Dr. Rashmi Rana joined Department of Research, Sir Gangaram Hospital, New Delhi, India as Scientist in Aug 2017 and she did his master in Biomedical Sciences and PhD, Biochemistry from AIIMS, New Delhi, India. She is recently working on Medical Toxicology as toxicology research is primarily to be concerned with three aspects of toxicology: adverse effects of therapeutic agents, acute intoxications, and chronic poisoning/environmental toxicology. The adverse effects of environmental toxicant should be considered along with the Toxicology of individual pollutant or groups of environmental pollutant. She has published 7 international research papers and 1 national and she was elected member of many societies. She is recipient of Three Best Oral presentations award and two Best Poster award, and also awarded travel student award winner of Society of Toxicology PPTOXII conference held in Miami FL, U.S.A, Dec 2008, awarded student winner of air pollution and health conference held in San Diego, California, U.S.A, March 2010.
Phthalates are used in personal and consumer products, food packaging materials, and polyvinyl chloride plastics and have been measured in the majority of the general population of the India. Consistent experimental evidence shows that some phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants in animals. This study explored the association between environmental levels of phthalates and altered reproductive hormone levels in infertile adult male.
Blood and urine samples were collected from 150 infertile patients & 75 fertile volunteers recruited through Department of Urology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi. Selected phthalates & their metabolites were measured in serum and urine samples by GC-M S& UPLC using NIOSH / OSHA detailed protocol. Linear regression models explored the relationship between specific gravity-adjusted urinary phthalate monoester concentrations and serum levels of reproductive hormones, including Estradiol, Testosterone, AP, LD, GGT and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Although we found significant correlation between several phthalate (DICHP, DMOP, DEHP, BEHIP, DBP and DDIP) compounds and mean ranks of testosterone & estradiol in subject, indicating that steroid hormones were associated with phthalates in Indian population. Thus phthalates and their metabolites might be independent risk factors for male infertility.