Day 2 :
Ebonyi State University, Nigeria
The impact of acute exposure of karate (Lambda cyhalothrin pyrethriod) insecticide evaluated during a 4 day exposure period at 20ppm, 40ppm, 60ppm, and 80ppm to “Heteroclarias” fingerlings showed the 96-hlC50 as 25.12ppm. The threshold value was 25.11ppm. the gills of the exposed fish analyzed showed a significant decrease in all the major cataions and ions(Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, k+, Mg2+) at (P<0.05). Although there was no total inhabitation of uptake of the cataions and anions studied, the results revealed that the uptake of these cataions and anions (Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, k+, Mg2+) increased rapidly during the 24hr period and dropped at 48hr and 72hr and gradually increased at the end of the 96th hr showing that it was time dependent during the exposure period the fish stood in upright position with their snouts above the water level gasping for air. Other behavioral characteristics of the exposed fish were peeling if skin, initial increase of opercula movement, curvature of the body, loss of balance, erratic swimming, quietness and finally death. These results therefore recommend that this insecticide (karate) should be applied appropriately at a recommended dose to avoid damage to both target and non target organisms
Professor Emmanuel Egwu Oti is a Lecturer in the Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki Nigeria. His area of specialization is Fish and Aquatic Toxicology. He has numerous publications in Fish and Aquatic Toxicology, Fisheries aquaculture pollution etc in both local and international journals. He is a member of many professional associations such as Aquatic Science Society of Nigeria , Fisheries society of Nigeria among others.
Professor Oti is a recipient of local and international awards such as NOC Research Award, ASUU award for excellence and integrity, Fellow Research and Human Development(FRHD). He is married with children.
SRM Trichy Medical College Hospital & Research Centre India
Time : 11:30-12:30
Dr. Gurudatta S Pawar is the Professor and HOD of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology department at Trichy SRM Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, India
Carbon monoxide is major component of fire atmosphere due to incomplete combustion of carbon. Accidental deaths due to carbon monoxide inhalation are common in many parts of the world due to its properties. Suicides by carbon monoxide inhalation are more common in developed countries and are extremely rare in India, possibly due to the know how of other methods for committing suicide.
In this interesting case an engineering student surfed the internet for different ways to commit suicide due to his recent love disappointment. He struck with the details of carbon monoxide. He “manufactured” the carbon monoxide by indigenous means, inhaled it to commit suicide in a meticulous and planned manner.
This case report deals with the modus operandi of the unusual and unique method adopted by the deceased to commit suicide, which is unheard in Indian scenario. This case is a typical example of the misuse and abuse of the internet and it is also an indicator of changing trends of suicide in India probably due globalization and information explosion.
- Aquatic Toxicology
- Environmental Chemistry
Location: Mercure Singapore On Stevens
University of Carthage, Tunisia
Water contamination has recently become an increasingly severe and pervasive problem for worldwide and the effluents of textile industries have been recognized as a major polluting source, due to the emission of large amounts of wastewaters. Reactive Red-120 (RR-120) and Reactive Blue Bezaktiv-150 (RBB-150) anionic dyes act specifically as the most hazardous chemical compounds classes that elicit adverse effect on aquatic organisms and humans, and need to be treated. In the present study, magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (MgAl LDH) was used as a selective adsorbent for the successful removal of RR-120 and RBB-150 textile dyes from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of various operating parameters such as initial concentration of dye, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial pH and temperature in order to provide optimum removal conditions. XRD, FT-IR, SEM and AFM analyses were used to highlight the assembly LDH−Dye. The adsorption process of RR-120 and RBB-150 was found to be at pH of 5 and temperature dependent and followed the pseudo-second order rate model. Also, the equilibrium adsorption data of both dyes were found to adopt the Langmuirtype isotherm model which assumes a monolayer coverage as the adsorption saturates and no further adsorption occurs. Furthermore, the presence of both dyes in competitive adsorption from binary aqueous solution was demonstrated.
- Environmental Toxicology
Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Nigeria
Dele Adeniyi is a Research Scientist, Phytopathologist and agricultural consultant affiliated with Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria. He has both teaching and research experience since 2005 and have been involve in many projects at different levels and discipline. He has expertise and skill in integrated disease management, research interest in toxicity of natural organic products, pesticide screening and chemical residue related issues in food products. He is also trained in plant health strategies for food, nutrition and trade, and value chain promotion and management. To his credit are tens of conference papers and scientific publications in referred journals of international repute. He’s a Fellow of Cocoa Cochran, Netherlands Fellowship Program and Master Trainer, Africa Cashew Alliance/Competitive Cashew initiative.
Aim: The study determines the estimated toxicity and efficacy of copper-based fungicides use to control Phytophthora megakarya
Study Design: Toxicity of fungicides against Phytophthora megakarya was determined in-vitro using mycelial growth inhibition.
Methodology: Isolates of Phytophthora megakarya were collected from cacao plantation in the demonstration/experimental plots of Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, South Western Nigeria. Three active ingredients: Cuprous oxide, Copper hydroxide and Copper hydroxide + metalaxyl in fungicides retailed in open market in Ibadan were assayed in-vitro at 0.5 µg/ml, 1.0 µg/ml, 1.5 µg/ml, 2.0 µg/ml and 2.5 µg/ml of active ingredient against mycelial growth of Phytophthora megakarya; pathogen of black pod disease. The antifungal index and effective concentration at which mycelial growth was inhibited by 50% (EC50 value) was calculated for pathogen/fungicide combination and probit analysis.
Results: Toxicity of fungicides against Phytophthora megakarya using the EC50 showed significant variation as estimated from the mycelial growth inhibition. Highest mycelial inhibition (85.25%) of Phytophthora megakarya was recorded at 2.5 µg/ml of Copper hydroxide + metalaxyl with estimated EC50 value of 0.18 µg/ml and highest toxicity was recorded in Copper hydroxide + metalaxyl while Cuprous oxide was least toxic against Phytopthora megakarya. The toxicity responses of these Copper-based fungicides against Phytophthora megakarya vary with active ingredients and Copper hydroxide + metalaxyl gave the highest fungitoxic effect.
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar University, India
Priyanka Agarwal is pursuing Ph.D. from Dr.B.R.Ambedkar University, Agra under the supervision of Prof. Ajay Taneja and working in environmental toxicology to find out the association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with birth defects. I have done my M. Phil in 2011, focusing on the impact of particulate matter on the health of petrol pump workers and till then, working in the field of human toxicology. I have attended 10 International and National conferences and have 6 published international papers, focusing on the impact of pesticides, PAHs and metals on birth defects.
As ubiquitous in nature, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) receive attention because of their possible role in implicating adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth, reduced birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. In this study the association of PAHs exposure with preterm birth was explored by collecting the placental tissue samples after delivery from 84 healthy non-smoking pregnant women. Then PAHs was extracted from samples followed by quantification with the help of gas chromatography equipped with an FID detector (GC-FID). A detailed questionnaire and medical records of pregnant women were also included in the study. Levels of PAHs were compared between two groups, one group with women having gestational age≥37 weeks known as a control group and the second group having a gestational age < 37 week serve as a study group. For most PAHs, higher, but statistically insignificant levels were found in the study group than the control except for acenaphthene, fluorene, acenaphthylene, phenanthrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene. However, significantly higher level of benzo (a) pyrene was found in preterm delivery group (0.485±0.675 ppb) than full term delivery group (0.124±0.436 ppb). The association between PAHs and gestational age was drawn with the help of linear regression model. The values of the Pearson correlation coefficient clearly shown the significant correlation (P<0.05) of benzo (a) pyrene (r=-0.293) and anthracene (r=-0.264) for the depletion trend of gestational age. Also, the standardized PAHs effect was little higher for benzo (a) pyrene (β=-0.549, P<0.001) than that attributed to anthracene (β=-0.303, P<0.05). This finding suggests the possible role of environmental pollutant like PAHs for inducing early delivery in women.