Lidia Zapór works in the Department of Chemical, Aerosol and Biological Hazards in the Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB). She is a head of Laboratory of Toxicology. The main area of her professional interest are problems of human in the working environment and the toxicity of chemical substances as well as methods of estimating the toxicity of substances in vitro. She was also engaged in preparation of documentation of maximum allowable levels of occupational exposure and characteristics of hazardous substances in the work of the Interdepartmental Committee mandated with updating and verification of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) for agents harmful to human health.
Statement of the Problem: Nanostructured molybdenum trioxide (MoO3-NPs) is promising material in many applications: in coatings, plastics, textiles, pigments, lubricants, ceramics and glass production, as antimicrobial agents, and for the detection of dopamine in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. In recent years, it was noted that in the case of nanomaterials should carefully evaluate the risks of their use, as they may pose a health risk. The objective of this study was to assess the cytotoxic activity of MoO3-NPs in human pulmonary cells.
Methodology: The cytotoxicity of MoO3-NPs was assessed on the alveolar carcinoma epithelial cells (A549) and normal bronchial epithelium cells (BEAS-2B) after short, and long-term time of exposure. Cytotoxicity studies included the effect of MoO3-NPs on cell viability, cell membrane integrity (NRU assay), mitochondrial metabolic activity (MTT assay) and the ability of the cells to proliferation (Clonogenic assay).
Findings: MoO3-NPs induced a dose- and time-related negative effect on the viability of both kids of the cells in the cytotoxic doses range 50 - 300 µg/ml, depending on cytotoxicity endpoint. In long-term exposure (7 day), MoO3-NPs at concentrations about 100 µg/ml impaired proliferation, implying their potential chronic toxicity. A549 cells were less sensitive than BEAS-2B one, to all measurement parameters.
Conclusion & Significance: The sensitivity of BEAS-2B cells to MoO3-NPs is of particular concern. These cells form a defense line of the body against the penetration of particles into lungs. Inhibition of the ability of BEAS-2B cells to proliferate under the influence of MoO3-NPs may be an unfavourable phenomenon for predicting their long-term effects of exposure.
Funding. This paper has been based on the results of a research task II.N11A. carried out within the scope of the fourth stage of the National Programme Improvement of safety and working conditions partly supported in 2017–2019 — within the scope of research and development — by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education/National Centre for Research and Development. The CIOP-PIB is the Programmes main co-ordinator.