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19th World Conference on Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

Tokyo, Japan

Rishikesh K. Tiwari

Rishikesh K. Tiwari

University of Allahabad, India

Title: Toxicological evaluation of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and their combination in earthworm and their impact on Acetylcholinesterase

Biography

Biography: Rishikesh K. Tiwari

Abstract

The increasing applications of pesticides in the agricultural fields have adverse impact on flora and fauna of the soil ecosystem. The role of earthworms in the agricultural practices is well known as they immensely contribute in increasing the quality and fertility of soil. So, it acts as a bioindicator for the ecotoxicological analysis of pesticide induced soil pollution. Therefore, the present study was aimed to explore the impact of chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate; OP), cypermethrin (a pyrethroid) and their combination (chlorpyrifos + cypermethrin) on earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae.   E. eugeniae were exposed to different concentrations of pesticides for 48 h by paper contact toxicity method.  The LC50 for commercial grade chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and their combination were determined as 0.165, 0.066 and 0.020 μg/cm2 respectively. To assess the sub-lethal effect of these pesticides, E. eugeniae were exposed to 5% and 10% of LC50 pesticides for 48 h. Alterations in morpho-behavioural patterns such as coiling, clitellar swelling, mucus release, and bleeding followed by fragmentation of body in earthworms were observed following exposure. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was assayed in different regions of body segment which exhibits significant (p < 0.05) decrease in AChE activity particularly in pre-clitellar region followed by clitellar and post clitellar regions and in comparison, to whole body. The decreased AChE activity with increasing concentration of pesticides indicates the effect at neuronal level which apparent from the behavioural changes. Therefore, from the present findings it can be concluded that long term exposure to these pesticides could lead to severe and irreparable effects on biochemical mechanisms of earthworms.