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22nd World Congress on Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, will be organized around the theme “”
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There are many sources of environmental toxicology that can lead to the presence of toxicants in our food, water and air. We ingest tiny amounts of these chemicals every day. Chemicals which are not metabolized are stored in the fat cells throughout the body and continue to accumulate.
These sources may be classified into organic and inorganic pollutants, pesticides and biological agents. There can be point sources of pollution, for example the drains from a specific factory but also non-point sources like the rubber from car tires that contain various chemicals and heavy metals. Such non-point sources are widely spread in the environment.
The field of Pharmacology encompasses drug composition and properties, molecular and cellular mechanisms, organ/systems mechanisms, signal transduction/cellular communication, molecular diagnostics, interactions, toxicology, chemical biology, therapy, and medical applications and anti-pathogenic capabilities.
Toxicology is a branch of Pharmacology concerned with nature, effects, detection and treatment of Poison.
Risk assessment is the determination of qualitative estimate of risk related to a situation and a recognized threat (also called hazard). Quantitative risk assessment requires calculations of two components of risk (R) the magnitude and the probability of loss.
Environmental safety is the practice of policies and procedures that ensure that immediate surrounding environment, including work areas, laboratories or facilities, is free of dangers that could harm to a person working in those areas. A safe place to work is the key component of environmental safety.
Industrial toxicology is the study of dangerous effects of chemicals used in the workplace, the products produced by companies, and the wastes created during manufacturing on human beings and other living beings. Industries such as the pharmaceutical and pesticide industries should conduct many studies and experiments to demonstrate the safety of the chemicals and wastes they develop. Few effects of industrial Toxicology include product development toxicology biochemical and molecular toxicology, chemical toxicology, heavy metals toxicity and acute zinc and iron toxicity.
The increased amounts of greenhouse gases like CO2 due to burning of fossil fuels, agriculture, land clearing and other human activities are believed to be the primary sources of the global warming. Global warming may cause rise in sea levels due to the melting of the polar ice caps, as well as a rise in frequency and severity of storms and other severe weather events.
Air pollution and climate change are closely related. Air pollutants that are harmful to human health and ecosystems contribute to climate change by affecting the amount of incoming sunlight that is reflected or absorbed by the atmosphere, with some pollutants rising and others reducing the temperature on Earth. These short-lived climate-forcing pollutants (SLCPs) include methane, black carbon, ground-level ozone, and sulfate aerosols. Black carbon and methane in particular have significant impact on climate and contribute to global warming after CO2.
Food Toxicology is the study of nature, analysis, properties and effects of toxic substances present in food. The toxic substances found in food can be generated during preparation, processing and preservation of food and can be of man-made or natural origin. Examples of toxic substances in food include carcinogenic preservatives, microbial, plant and animal toxins, pesticide and insecticide residues, toxic food additives and other contaminants.
Aquatic toxicology can be defined as a multidisciplinary field that integrates various other fields like toxicology, aquatic chemistry, and aquatic ecology. This field of study includes marine water sediments, freshwater and sediment environments.
Occupational toxicology is a field of toxicology that relates to exposure of people to noxious or hazardous agents during their employment. Work-related exposures can be studied by use of inhalation and skin exposure monitoring as well as biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and effect, usually as part of epidemiological exposures.
Agriculture chemicals like Pesticides are designed to control pests, but they can also be toxic to desirable plants and animals, including humans. Pesticide poisoning can be divided into three different types. Among them, the first is single and short-term which is very high level of exposure that can be experienced by individuals who commit suicide, as well as pesticide formulators. The second type is long-term high-level exposure to agricultural chemicals, which can occur in pesticide manufacturers and formulators. The third is long-term low-level exposure in which individuals are exposed to sources such as pesticide residues in food as well as contact with pesticide residues of various mediums like food materials, air, water, soil, sediment, plants and animals.
Environmental health is the branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect human health. Health is the science, practice, and study of a human's well-being and their health and preventing illnesses and human injuries.
Environmental medicine is a multidisciplinary field involving medicine, environmental science, chemistry and others, overlapping with environmental pathology.
Forensic Toxicology links Toxicology and Forensic science. It deals with the analysis of hazardous substances, environmental chemicals or poisonous products. Forensic toxicologists identify toxic substances, their concentrations, and their probable pharmacological effect on the victim in case of crime.
Soil contamination or soil pollution is caused by the presence of chemicals in the natural soil environment. Soil Toxicology is caused by industrial activities, agricultural chemicals, and by improper disposal of waste.
Environmental Microbiology is devoted to the advancement of our understanding of microbial interactions and microbial processes in the environment. Microorganisms are cost effective agents for in-situ remediation of agricultural, domestic, and industrial wastes. They are the best remediation for subsurface pollution in soils, sediments and marine environments. The ability of each microorganism to degrade toxic waste depends on the nature of each contaminant.
Environmental chemistry refers to the chemical procedures that occur in terrestrial, air, water and living environments and the consequence of human activity on them. It is a multidisciplinary field with topics Astrochemistry, environmental modeling, marine chemistry, geochemistry, atmospheric chemistry and pollution remediation.